State of Arizona Accounting Manual
Arizona Department of Administration General Accounting Office
Subject: Fraud, Theft, Waste, and Abuse
The purpose of this section of SAAM is to clarify agency responsibilities to effectively implement internal controls that aid in the prevention and detection of fraud, theft, waste, or abuse, along with the requirements for reporting. This policy applies to any fraud, theft, waste, or abuse or suspected fraud, theft, waste, or abuse involving any employee (including management), consultant, vendor, contractor, outside agency, or person doing business with an agency or in any other relationship with an agency.
Managing the Business Risk of Fraud: A Practical Guide
All organizations are subject to fraud risks. Large frauds have led to the downfall of entire organizations, massive investment losses, significant legal costs, incarceration of key individuals, and erosion of confidence in capital markets. Publicized fraudulent behavior by key executives has negatively impacted the reputations, brands, and images of many organizations around the globe.
This guide recommends ways in which boards4 , senior management, and internal auditors can fight fraud in their organization.
For more information, visit the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE)
Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government
Federal policymakers and program managers are continually seeking ways to better achieve agencies’ missions and program results, in other words, they are seeking ways to improve accountability. A key factor in helping achieve such outcomes and minimize operational problems is to implement appropriate internal control. Effective internal control also helps in managing change to cope with shifting environments and evolving demands and priorities. As programs change and as agencies strive to improve operational processes and implement new technological developments, management must continually assess and evaluate its internal control to assure that the control activities being used are effective and updated when necessary.
The following definition, objectives, and fundamental concepts provide the foundation for the internal control standards.
State of Arizona, A Resource to Combat Fraud, Waste and Abuse
The information contained in this guide is the result of collaboration among the State of Arizona's General Accounting Office, Office of the Auditor General, and the Office of the Governor and oversight agencies that investigate allegations of fraud, waste and abuse. A proactive approach to prevention decreases the chances of problems in the future and helps detect, investigate and correct occurrences.